Autism  – belongs to the group of generalized developmental disorders characterized by quality violations in social relationships and the way of communication. This group has an organic, stereotyped complex of interests and activities

 Child Autism

Generalized developmental disorder , which is determined by the presence of abnormal and / or impaired development occurring before three years of age and having abnormal functioning in three areas: social relationships, communication and behavior, which is recurrent, limited and stereotypically.

In addition to these specific features, children with autism often suffer from other nonspecific problems such as phobias , sleep disturbances and nutrition, short-term outbursts of anger / self-directed / aggression. Quite often are self-injuries (for example, biting hands), especially when there is a combination with severe mental retardation.

Most autistic children lack spontaneity, initiative and creativity in organizing leisure time. There are a lot of things when applying common concepts and making decisions in the work (even when the tasks are within their capabilities). The specific manifestation of Autism deficits changes with the child’s growth but continues into adulthood with a very similar combination of socialization, communication, and interest styles.
It occurs 3-4 times more frequently in the boys than in girls.


 Atypical autism

Type of generalized developmental disorder that differs from childhood autism or the age of first symptoms, or that all three sets of diagnostic criteria are met. It is only diagnosed when the abnormal or impaired development occurs after three years of age and there are not enough demonstrative disorders in one or two of the three areas of psychopathology necessary for the diagnosis of autism / social relationships, communication and limited stereotypical behavior / despite the abnormalities in others areas.

This atypical occurrence occurs most often in children with severe mental retardation and in children with a severe specific disorder in the development of recipes.
Includes: mental retardation with autistic signs; atypical psychosis of childhood.


 Rett Syndrome

A condition observed for girls only, where apparently early onset of development is usually followed by partial or complete loss of speech and skills to move and use the hands together with a slowing of the growth of the head. The beginning is usually in the age between 7 and 24 months.

Typical is the loss of purposeful hand movements and hyperventilation. The development of social skills and play remain at the level of the first two to three years, but there is a tendency to preserve social interests.

At the age of about 4 years, apraxia / disturbance of gestational activity in healthy organs begins to develop, and motor and cardiac functions are not affected, and there is a complete understanding of the act, there are no intellectual deficits of the body that are often followed by choreoathetic / sudden and dull movements, both varied and unpredictable movements.

Almost invariably a severe mental retardation occurs.
Approximately half of the cases of adolescence or adulthood develop spinal atrophy with severe motor defects. Later on, rigid plasticity may occur, usually severe in the lower than in the upper limbs.

 Degenerative disorder

Type of generalized developmental disorder (other than Rett syndrome), which is determined by the presence of a period of apparent normal development to the pile of the disorder.

Then, for several months, there is a clearly defined period of loss of previously acquired skills covering several areas of development. Typically, this is accompanied by a general loss of interest in the environment, stereotyped, repetitive motives and disturbed by the type of autism social relationships and communications.

There is often a period of vague illness: the child becomes devastated, excitable, anxious and hyperactive, and then loss of speech and language accompanied by behavioral disintegration.
In some cases, the loss of skill is persistently progressive / usually when the disorder is combined with a progression of provable neurological disease, but more often the fall is for a period of several months followed by a smooth and then a slight improvement.

The prognosis is usually very poor, most people remain severely mentally lagging behind. There is uncertainty about the extent to which this condition differs from autism. In some cases, the disorder may be due to a concomitant encephalopathy / wide nasal group that covers all organ damage to the brain, but the diagnosis should be based on behavioral signs.


 Hyperactive disorder

Combined with mental retardation and stereotypical movements – This is a poorly defined disorder with undetermined nosological validity. This category is included here for the following reasons:
• Children with severe mental retardation (IQ below 50) whose main problems are hyperactivity and disturbance of attention as well as stereotypical behavior.

• They are usually not well influenced by stimulants (as opposed to those with IQs within normal range) and may react with severe dysphoria (sometimes with psychomotor retardation when given such medication).

• In adolescence, hyperactivity is often replaced by hypoactivity / type of development that is not characteristic of chirped children with normal intelligence.

Often this syndrome is combined with various developmental delays, specific or common. It is unclear how behavioral is due to low IQ or organic brain damage.
Diagnosis depends on the combination of severe hyperactivity disorder, motor stereotypes and severe mental retardation inadequate for development. All three must have a diagnosis.


 Asperger syndrome

Asperger’s syndrome is of undefined nosological validity, which is inherent in the same quality violations of the social relationships that characterize autism, along with a limited, stereotyped, repetitive repertoire of interests and activities. It differs from autism mainly due to the lack of general delay or lagging in language or cognitive development. Most faces have normal general intelligence, often accentuated.

This condition occurs mainly in boys (8: 1). The disorder is combined with marked clumsiness. It is very likely that at least some of the cases are mild varieties of autism, but it is not certain whether this applies to everyone.

There is a strong tendency for abnormalities to persist in adolescence and adulthood, and they appear to be individual characteristics that are not greatly influenced by the surrounding environment. At the young age, psychotic episodes may occur.

In diagnosis, physicians generally take into account the absence of clinically significant overall lag in speech development or cognitive development and the presence of qualitative disorders.
The diagnosis of ” autism ” often occurs after the child has mastered the main events in normal development, such as walking without help before 15 months of age. It is often reported that atypical children have an extraordinary good motor development, walking and keeping their balance with great ease.

It is also common to look for signs of adequate memory to diagnose autism. An autistic child, for example, can repeat as a parrot or otherwise the voices of a group of people or TV ads or have a good memory for visual details.

Autistic children

They may show certain special well-developed interests, such as playing with mechanical objects such as gear or motorized toys. Some Autistic children have a great interest in music and dances. Others demonstrate a significant ability to assemble mosaics, entertained by numbers or letters from the alphabet, and so on.

Some autistic children show limited but characteristic fears that exist in a more transitory form in the average child. They, for example, may experience unusual fears of the sound of the vacuum cleaner, a certain type of music, or a passing ambulance.
Behavioral deficits include the following:

• The autistic child has no or almost no language, neither does he accept speech, nor can he express himself. Children may be dumb, or if speech is present, it is echoalic in the sense that the child repeats as a parrot what others have said or heard on television. Reciprocal speech is also broken because the child is able to react only to simple commands / sit, eat, close the door, and so on. / but not the abstract speech, like the metonym / mine, yours, his / her, etc. / or words for time / first, last, etc. /.

The child’s inability to express or understand the language is the most common complaint that parents have. These problems can be identified during the second year of the child’s life.

• The child behaves as if there is a visible sensory / perceptual deficit, ie. it behaves as if it is blind, deaf, but careful examinations reveal intact sensory modalities. Parents complain that their children have particular difficulties with attention. Usually, they do not keep in touch with their parents and do not turn their heads in the direction of the people who speak.

• Autistic children usually do not build close relationships with their parents. This is evident during the first few months of life when parents complain that their child does not like to cuddle and can actually resist physical contact, stiffening their backs or trying to escape their parents’ arms.

• Autistic children do not play with toys like their peers. They are not interested and do not spend their time playing with them. If they do play with toys, it’s often a strange way – for example, they turn the truck and roll their wheels, carry a jump of rope, which twist in awe, carry a doll to smell or suck it. The inability to play with toys can be recorded in the second year of life.

• Friendship games may be missing or severely restricted. It is possible that the child does not have an interest or skill to play games, to a great extent, not conscious of the presence of other children, unless it is involved in a “give away” game, this sign is also quite remarkable in the second year of life.

• Autistic children often delay or fail to attain simple self-help skills. They have problems learning how to dress themselves, use the toilet and eat without help. Similarly, they have large deficiencies in recognizing common hazards, and they have to be closely watched so as not to be hated when they cross the street in heavy traffic or play with electrical appliances, and so on.
Behavioral surpluses:

• Autistic children exhibit a significant amount of angry outbursts and aggression. Aggression can sometimes be directed at them themselves, they bite, they hit their head in the wall, they stare on their faces. Again, aggression is directed at others. Most parents complain that their children are almost unmanageable, have little tolerance of frustration, and even react to minor inconveniences with intense anger.

• Autistic children can demonstrate a lot of “self-stimulation” behavior in the form of ritual, repetitive and stereotypical actions such as shaking the body in an upright and seated position, clapping hands, rotating different objects, staring into lights, arranging objects in proper rows, contemplation of rotating fans or other devices that rotate, or jumps up and down and twists the body over extended periods of time.