A frequently asked question from teachers is: What is dyslexia? What is Dyspraxia? Do they have a connection and how are they different?
The markers that essentially define dyslexia and dyspraxia are:
Dyslexia is related to the ability to decode written text and is manifested by:
- poorly developed reading and writing skills
- problems with graphical sign operation
- problems with building metaphysics and others.
In order to establish dyslexia, it is necessary for the child to enter the period of literacy.
Dyspraxia is a disorder that affects the performance of volitional movements and is manifested by:
- with motor coordination difficulties;
- with difficulties in rough and fine motoring;
- with a deficiency in motor planning and others.
The difficulties that this violation leads to are related to the ability to plan and to complete the started, to prioritize.
It has been shown that people with learning disabilities often have motor abnormalities.
In both conditions, dyslexia / dyspraxia excludes an intellectual deficit.
Both states (dyslexia, dyspraxia) have more similarities than differences. Difficult to distinguish one from another. Very often, the two conditions are presented in specific learning disabilities in the students.
Often dyslexia is accompanied by dyspraxia.
Both conditions are hardly likely to occur in a pure state.
The table shows the relative division of dyslexia / dyspraxia.
Below are briefly presented deficiencies common to both conditions (dyslexia, dyspraxia) that occur in the study of mathematics.
Students with dyslexia and dyspraxia often have problems with mastery of mathematical skills. Difficulties are in terms of how they handle a number of tasks (eg in mathematics).
Poor work memory affects math education, such as linear or step by step processes that involve memorizing several pieces of information into the working memory at the same time. Children with learning difficulties often lose track of what they do, forget what the initial task was, or forget the teacher’s instructions. “Would You Tell Me: What was the sum once again?” Is a classic question for a person with “dyslexia” or “dyspraxia”.
Poor long-term memory: it is the difficulty of automating mathematical facts and mathematical procedures (ie, facts relating to subtraction or multiplication, or how to sum up the numbers).
Causal problems : They cover a number of complex interrelated areas:
1. Number and number system :
There are many skills the child needs to master before entering the period of literacy and numeracy. Before going through learning stages how to count, children have to find meaning in counting and grouping the numbers, and they have to learn to use complex sequences of a certain number of words.
The ability to count includes word marks to sequences of objects. Recalling sequences of words and seeing patterns within these sequences is a key aspect of learning to understand the complex structures of the numeral system.
Many children with dyslexia and dyspraxia learn to count later than their peers and fail to understand the structures of the number system.
As a result, they have difficulty decoding large numbers and have problems in calculating tasks in mind and in writing with large numbers.
2. Sequence of instructions :
Many children with dyslexia and dyspraxia have difficulty memorizing a sequence of verbal instructions. All calculations with larger numbers include performing a sequence of steps.
Standard calculation methods are taught “procedurally” or as a series of verbal instructions (First, you can do this, then do this when you do this next, then …)
As a result, standard methods are particularly difficult to learn for children with dyslexia and dyspraxia. Often parents and teachers resort to teaching methods of mind-learning with learning by heart, with a repetition of voice.
It is good for children to learn to comprehend in their minds new methods that are relatively easy to understand and do not require to be taught “by prescription”.
3. Shuffle directions:
Sometimes the children mistakenly write the digits (eg “2” and “6”), directional difficulties usually have a significant effect when reading or decoding two-digit numbers and writing or encoding.
The count system is structurally different in the second ten, between 10 and 20, and this makes it difficult for children to determine which digit in the two-digit number is said or written first. These difficulties arise if children confuse the direction or “position” (16/61, 12/21, etc.).
It is difficult for them to understand how to calculate (when the numbers are written in a column), because when reading the numbers we read them from left to right, but when calculating, we calculate starting from right to left.
Under take-up procedures, children should move left and right and find themselves in extremely difficult situations. By multiplying the “truncated” directional requirements and cross-step and step-down requirements, many students with dyslexia and dyspraxia are hampered.
4. Speaking and writing speed:
Children with dyslexia / dyspraxia tend to process the incoming information more slowly.
If they are required to give quick answers to questions about mathematical facts, or to make rapid calculations in mind, a reduction in the ability to think is obtained.
The difficulties in working memory, attention deficit and anxiety lead to delays in the processing and retrieval of information, which means that these students will finish writing more slowly and will do less work than their peers.
5. Poor ability to summarize. Children with dyslexia / dyspraxia show:
Weak side: weak ability to recall facts
Strong side : they quickly grasp the principles of logic-mathematical computational strategies, they are able to devise ways to calculate their difficult calculations.
Often in the initial stage of education, children with dyslexia / dyspraxia may be particularly straightforward in thinking because they see figures and calculations in elementary form based on one-digit numbers.
The poor understanding of the numbers and the links between them (which is the basis of the weak ability to summarize) is a reason not to transfer known, standard ways of calculating to solving unknown or challenging tasks.
They often have difficulty in understanding which operation is involved in a mixed text task.
For tasks in mind, children with dyslexia and dyspraxia often fail to choose an appropriate strategy for “calculating” in mind. In these cases, some children with dyslexia and dyspraxia can be so confused that they can not judge where to start.
Distinguishing strengths and weaknesses:
The Dyslexic personality is interesting in mathematics training.
Often, dyslexic children find it hard to recall facts, but many are good at “thinking.” Some dyslexic children solve some mathematical tasks extremely quickly and without looking like they do a lot of computations. While the difficulty in retrieving facts can slow down the calculation, some dyslexic children quickly grasp the principles of mathematical computing strategies.
With the right support, they are able to devise new ways of calculating their difficult calculations.
Usually, dyslexic children who are good “thinkers” are not able to explain the methods they use to make the calculation or solve the text tasks. Because they work intuitively, they are often unable to record / explain their calculation methods. Their answers are often inaccurate because their knowledge of the exact facts is limited.
What is important to know the teacher / parent in learning mathematics?
- It is of utmost importance when introducing the child to mathematics is to pay particular attention to the handling and recognition of quantities and, respectively, to the connection of quantities with figures. For this purpose, students with dyslexia / dyspraxia should be given access to handling specific materials in order to understand all conceptual and computational aspects of mathematics;
- Be convinced that students with dyslexia / dyspraxia understand the linguistic and symbolic aspects of mathematics;
- To teach in a structured way (ie to be on the ground within each subject, teaching methods to be compatible with understanding).
Tools that make it possible to find meaning in numbers and students to think mathematically include:
- Specific objects and material;
- Abstract spatial-numeric models.
A young girl created a special font for people with dyslexia
It is completely free and can be installed on a computer or tablet
To facilitate the daily lives of those suffering from dyslexia, young Christina Kostova creates a special font. Thanks to it, reading and writing is easier.
“Clearly, I have plotted a slight deformation of the letters, which makes it easier for the reader’s eye to be misled in a more correct way,” Christina explained.
Cristina also suffers from dyslexia. As a little she moved the letters into words, but it seemed perfectly normal to her.
“I often told my mother that I do not see what the problem she found in my dictation because all the letters are there. They just are not in the right order, “she said.
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Dyslexia is not a disease but a different way in which the brain processes the information. Symptoms and manifestations may be different.
“The hardest thing is that the letters, as most of them say,” dance “. It is difficult to track a line, quite often confused. In their order in one word they are replaced, they are exchanged, “explained the young girl.
Christina currently provides Adys for free and free use. The font can be installed on a computer or tablet. Sends it by post to anyone who is interested.
“I have been contacted by many teachers, regardless of the level of primary or secondary education, who say,” I notice that some of my students have such problems and I would like to help them, “Christina says.
Its future plans are to create a site where the font can be downloaded. She hopes that her own will reach more people.
Dyslexia – what are the symptoms and what does the treatment involve?
Dyslexia is a type of learning difficulty that has difficulty in determining directions in space and is sometimes described as a neurological disorder. It occurs in the form of difficulties in reading, writing, spelling problems, and sometimes in mathematics. In some cases, balance, movement and sense of rhythm are affected.
The level of intelligence in dyslexic people is often above average to extremely high, they are endowed with creative skills and ingenious abilities. Famous examples of dyslexic people are Leonardo da Vinci, Albert Einstein, Walt Disney and the Olympic Jumping Champion and multiple gold medal winner Greg Luganis.
Causes and Symptoms
While the exact cause has not been found, studies have identified differences in the way audio and visual information is processed in dyslexic and other people. In a person with dyslexia these differences create what a scholar calls a “psychological signature” – a unique brain scheme, perhaps a result of a pronounced activity on dopamine-associated neural conducting pathways.
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter, a chemical acting in the brain, which facilitates certain types of messages. According to one author, when dopamine levels are high, the dyslexic feels time as flowing very slowly outside of himself and very fast inside him; as if the weather is dead.
The same author notes that when dyslexic experiences moments of disorientation when words or sounds do not create a visual picture for him, and when his mind continues to try to overcome confusion visually, dopamine levels are shifting and changing. It seems that this corresponds to some of the symptoms of dyslexia, such as imprecise time and fantasy.
Symptoms may include:
– Impaired ability to connect symbols to sounds and vice versa
– Frequent confusion of words when reading and inability to remember their meaning
– Confusion in oral directions when no visual reference is missing
– Confused sense of spatial orientation, especially by turning letters and numbers, frequent loss of space reached when reading or skipping rows
– A feeling that words, letters and numbers move around, disappear or become bigger or smaller
– Skip punctuation marks or other language elements
– Slow, difficult reading, difficult to understand and quiet speech in some cases, often misspelled words
– Confusion on left and right
– Difficult learning of mathematical concepts, excessive fantasy and difficulties with the perception of time
– Difficulty in stacking objects in sequence
– Difficulty in arranging puzzles, difficulty in following a straight line or difficulties in performing tasks requiring precise motor skills
Other more positive features common to dyslexics include:
– Primary ability of the brain to change and create sensations
– Excellent sense of their environment, intelligent, with curiosity above average
– Intuitive, insightful, with exceptional imaging ability
– Multi-dimensional perception (from different viewpoints almost simultaneously)
– Living imagination
– They experience the thought as reality (they confuse what they see with what they think they see), which is why they are extremely creative
In his book, “Dyslexia is a gift,” Ronald D. Davis describes an alternative and additional treatment that takes into account the “dynamic point of view” model. According to this model, the letters seem to change shape and sail, the lines of text seem to move, and the words seem to be different from those in reality, is that the dyslexic sees the world through his “eye of consciousness” instead of his physiological eye.
In other words, sufferers of dyslexia see more than anyone else what they “think” of seeing, not what their eyes see. And in order to complicate matters even more, they do so so quickly that they are easily confused when multiple aspects do not form a complete and unified image.
The purpose of the treatment proposed by Davis himself, who suffers from dyslexia, is to get the “eye of consciousness” to return to a studied, fixed point of view when the dyslexic finds it he sees with his mind, not with his eyes. This is achieved by a series of evaluation tests, followed by exercises singularly, which overwhelm the pathways of perception used by consciousness.
Using the dyslexic talents – his imagination and curiosity – these exercises include creative physical exercises, including the use of clay for modeling, Kush’s ball, and training for movement. In 1982, Davis founded the Center for Dyslexia Correction to the Reading Review Board, and in 1995, Davis International Dyslexia Association, which teaches pedagogues and therapists.
Another alternative treatment is to improve the underdeveloped learning skills needed for reading and math. This system, called “Audioblock”, can be used singly (especially for children) or in groups, and includes a series of learning exercises focusing on the “shortcomings” of dyslexia.
The treatment includes purchasing a kit on the Internet that contains a book titled “The Right to Read,” a supplementary manual, a CD computer program needed for Audiobox training, and teaching materials.
The book is divided into two parts – the first explains the theory and the second – the exercise program itself. The supplementary guide contains specialized programs addressing the “flaws”, including writing, spelling, mathematics,
The teaching materials include 96 color blocks representing each of the six colors on each of the six sides of the block; a barrier that covers the objects, colored cards with pre-printed drawings, letter cards, a reading book written with the 800 most commonly used words in English, and word cards and demonstration videos.
Special recommendations on education include helping the child to be organized and focused on the tasks involved, keeping their desks and workplaces stacked without unnecessary or distracting materials; Set up more frequent and shorter execution tasks to increase confidence. maintaining constant feedback and “immediate incentives”, as well as short discussions or work arrangements.
Allopathic medical treatment for dyslexia includes the use of anti-disorientation medications aimed at balancing and coordination symptoms as a result of changes in visual perception; stimulant drugs such as Ritalin, aimed at the symptoms associated with decreased self-esteem, anxiety and easy scattering, and nootropic drugs that are believed to improve cognitive function.
Stimulant drugs can be more effective in learning-related disorders. For Piracetam (Nootropil or Piramide are similar), it is thought that it is possible to treat dyslexia. Potential side effects from the use of stimulants that are reported include nervousness and insomnia; they are contraindicated in epilepsy, some allergies, problems with blood pressure or using monoamine oxidase inhibitors.
Children have been reported to have a long-term effect on growth and may suppress their nervous system or lead to loss of consciousness. By reducing natural stimulant levels in the brain, they can also lead to dependence. Stimulants and nootropic drugs are said to reinforce the effects of alcohol and amphetamines.
Other possible interactions include the use of anticonvulsants (antiepileptic drugs), tricyclic antidepressants, anticoagulants and atropine-like medicines that block the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. By reducing natural stimulant levels in the brain, they can also lead to dependence.
Stimulants and nootropic drugs are said to reinforce the effects of alcohol and amphetamines. Other possible interactions include the use of anticonvulsants (antiepileptic drugs), tricyclic antidepressants, anticoagulants and atropine-like medicines that block the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
reducing natural stimulant levels in the brain, they can also lead to dependence. Stimulants and nootropic drugs are said to reinforce the effects of alcohol and amphetamines. Other possible interactions include the use of anticonvulsants (antiepileptic drugs), tricyclic antidepressants, anticoagulants and atropine-like medicines that block the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
Basic Writing Skills and Dyslexia
A large proportion of SOP children have a disability called dyslexia. Writing also relates to language as well as oral speech. It is born out of different motives and is generally more conscious and unfolded.
In order to learn to read and write, the child must also understand the written form of speech as a signage system that allows the transmission of information through graphic elements. Writing must be related to oral speech.
It is also a form of communication with graphically represented language tools, where speech sounds are replaced by alphabetic characters. The basis of writing is language and oral speech as a universal means of communication. The writing process is another way of generating and expressing one’s own thoughts, which is one of the main factors for the development of human civilization.
- Forming writing skills (written and handwritten) is a lengthy and consistent process.
- Depending on the degree of mastery, its psychological structure changes, moving from a conscious to an automated level of performance.
- Writing takes place through various types of writing: writing under dictation, copying, and spontaneous writing.
The sensory level is related to the ability of visual and auditory perception and associated verbal and visual memory. The visual perception ensures the fine distinction of the graphically similar letters and is related to the visual memory with respect to the memory of optical symbols and the assimilation of the correct position of the letters.
In turn, the auditory perception ensures the distinction of the acoustically similar sounds of the smaller sound particle and its alphanumeric reference, which in turn are also related to the sound memory parameters.
The motor organization refers to the reproduction of the code code by means of fine complex movements that also affect the ability to switch to the digital word scheme. During this process visual and motor control is performed. On the other hand, in the process of spontaneous writing the motor level is upgraded above the phonological, lexical, graphic, and semantic.
Speech level refers to e.g. internal articulation when writing. Written output is always done with support from the other form of language realization – the single speech. Quite naturally, when articulation is impaired, it affects dictation and spontaneous self-writing, with mistakes in writing identical to mistakes in articulation.
Linguistic Levelis related to the development of the language system, which is a genesis for the processes of reading and writing. Writing is learned only if the language is mastered.
This process takes into account all language laws that relate to the structure of the language, especially as regards self-writing. In order to realize the written statement, it is necessary to construct a meaningful program in which it is constructed by thoughts and judgments.
This program should be referenced to the grammatical rules of the language. In the process of spontaneous writing, the ability to preserve the order of the phrases and sentences is needed, by controlling what is written and what is to be written. In turn, every sentence to be written is divided into compound words,
Orthographic errors are related to the fine discrimination of optically similar graphic symbols, which are mainly due to the difference in visual processing and memory.
In children with SEN who have a disability there are difficulties with vocabulary, mostly reading and writing.
They are extremely versatile and there is still no exact definition. About 20% of people have similar problems. In most cases, it is associated with writing, reading and math problems related to the fact that people with dyslexia see the letters shuffled and turned back, or the fact that they learn the material slowly or with difficulty.
It is important to remember that in those SEN children the problems they have with reading, writing or mathematics do not mean they are stupid or mentally impaired.
The most important thing to understand is the fact that in systemic work with SOP children who have disability impairment can overcome much of their difficulty.
Children with SOP – arthropathy and music therapy
Although art therapy uses all kinds of art, the term arthropathy has been preserved for the healing application of fine arts. Painting and plastic are the most important.
Thanks to arthropathy, emotional phenomena and penetration into the inner world of children with SEN are illustrated. Various painting techniques are used in art therapy – watercolor, painting, etc.
Very often, the children have a theme – “My family” Conflict, “My fears”, “My sadness,” etc. The psychologist in a psychological cabinet most often applies the following method, which has a learning objective and develops the creative approach. It sets the task of drawing what comes first into the mind.
This can be points, bars, geometric shapes, and so on. Through open questions and psychoanalytic methods, the subconscious inner conflict or other problem is reached. After the discussion, the participants complete the drawing and it acquires integrity (for example, a circle can be placed and become a pan).
Today music therapy is an established method in the complex therapy of children SOP. Music is a kind of art related to the social existence of man. From the earliest childhood, one has some means of expressing his emotional expression, gestures, exclamations and words: singing and music expand and refine these means.
Music is the most emotional of all arts. The musical language is an aesthetic reflection of reality with a pronounced expressive and dynamic character that enriches our sense of the world and especially of ourselves, representing an immediate expression of the subjective world of human feelings.
Recently, the communication aspect of music has been emphasized. For this purpose, the psychologist in a psychological cabinet applies the following method of extra and intra-psychic integration (between the social group itself and the inner one – the person who has the relation to the adaptation): each participant is given cards showing human faces expressing a certain emotion .
This emotion should be related to the basic moods and types of music: merry-hearted, thirsty-tired, happy-angry, calm-excited, courageous-cowardly, slow-fast, festive-weekly, warm-taught, intimate-alienated, clear – grim, beautiful – ugly.
Participants show this card that reflects the corresponding emotion. Focus on the position of the eyes, eyebrows, mouth. This method is particularly suitable for children with SEN.
On the basic qualities of the musical experience, the therapeutical aims of the music therapy, generally formulated in four-cycle cycles:
- Enable emotional processes and stimulate and internalize and overcome pathogenic conflicts.
- Enable and unlock social interactions at non-verbal level that help overcome pathogenic communication behaviors.
- Mastering psychophysical tension
- Pedagogical goals without ceasing to be therapeutic .
To this end, another approach applies: each participant shares a problem or a merry, positive experience, after which the psychologist listens to the appropriate music.
The emotions that bring music are commented on and how the emotions that can be created can help solve the problem. The last part is painting a drawing (optional).