Characteristics of mistakes and techniques of wit
According to Sigmund Freud, father of psychoanalysis, mistakes in language, mistakes in writing, mistakes in memory, and the various misconceptions we attribute to chance are included by Sigmund Freud in the so-called psychopathology of everyday life.
The memory gap is the consequence of the effect of the deflection mechanism. Because the motives as well as the very action of an unconscious person have no idea what the causes of forgetfulness are, and can rewrite them to chance, fatigue, and so on.
For example, language mistakes or writing errors may occur after failure to suppress a thought. In this case, the speaker or the writer expresses what he wants to say or write despite his attempt to conceal it.
Regardless of whether the mistake seems understandable, its interpretation must be supported by the associations, the person who makes it. Recourse to associations is necessary, especially in cases where errors are not immediately clear.
The reason for mistakes in writing or speaking is inappropriate, fatigue, etc. Freud took these factors into account, but gave them a minor role. But he was convinced that the unconscious mental processes play a major role in the occurrence of mistakes.
Different mistakes can reveal the signs of the primary thinking process of displacement, representation of the figure by part and vice versa, presentation of the idea by analogy or opposite idea, and symbolism in a psychological sense. Each of these processes, individually or in combination, can determine the final appearance of the error.
As a conclusion we can say that the mistakes of everyday life are the result of the Ego’s inability to integrate in a harmonious whole the various processes activated in the psyche at a certain moment. unrelated mental processes, which oppose integration, get some independent expression through thoughts or behavior in the form of errors.
Sometimes they originate from the Ego , sometimes from Ida or from the Superego(these are the three psyche structures according to Freud). They may be the product of two or three of these parts of the mental apparatus.
Error-like oversubers are known phenomena of everyday life. Freud shows that at every appearance that in every appearance of humor the primary role plays the primary role. He uses ingenious techniques. He recites the jokes with the language of the secondary thought process, without changing the content, as a result of which their witty disappears completely.
Humor presents features of the primary thought process such as displacement, compression, opposition, use of symbolism, and others. The primary thought process is a form of thinking characteristic of childhood. It gradually moves away from the secondary process, so it can be said that the wit is returning in part to both the author and the listener the dominant role of the primary thought process, wit leads to partial regression of the Ego.
In humor, regression is stimulated by the Ego itself. To sum up, we can say that the creator of jokes expresses ideas with the help of partial regression and under the influence of the primary thought process. The resulting image or concept is expressed through the language of the secondary thought process ie. by words. Listeners understand humor because they temporarily temporarily regress to the primary process.
Sigmund Freud points out that the content of the word is also important. Characteristic of it is that it consists of cognitive and sexual thoughts that the Ego rejects when creating or listening to the joke. Oral and anal components of sexuality, along with phalic and genital, are included. Technically, the joke serves to release unconscious tendencies that can not occur. The technique of jokes allows us to satisfy a certain amount of sexual energy, which is otherwise impossible in such a situation.
If we make a comparative analysis of the wit, the errors will determine that they are very similar. In both, there are unconscious tendencies; in both the primary and characteristic role played the primary thought process. The differences are that in mistakes the emergence of unconscious tendencies is due to the temporary inability of the Ego to control these tendencies.
Errors appear despite the will of the Ego. In the wit, the ego either creates or voluntarily allows temporary or partial regression to the primary process, and thus enables the instantaneous removal of protective measures, allowing for the occurrence of otherwise forbidden impulses. The ego creates and values the wit. Another difference is that unconscious tendencies come from Yea, Ego or Superego.
Structural theory of the human psyche. Key Features of “It” and “I”. Relationships between “It” and “Me”.
In his earliest Freud scheme, three different systems – unconscious, conscious and conscious. Freud believes that the sign of awareness is an insufficient basis for distinguishing between different mental content and individual psychological processes. The rationale for this is the existence of two types of mental content and psychic processes that are unconscious and differ in terms of dynamic and functional criteria.
Those of the first kind do not differ significantly from the content of the processes that are in the mind at any moment. They can only be conscious of an effort of will. At the same time, what is conscious at a certain moment seems to be conscious in the next, when the attention deviates from it.
The second kind of mental content and psychic processes that are unconscious differ from the first in that they can not become aware despite attention efforts. Their access to consciousness is barred by an inner mental power.
Freud’s findings relate to the system of the unconscious. Psychoanalysis is called ” deep psychology, ” ie the psychology of the unconscious. It is a psychology whose main interest is the content and processes of the psyche that are separated from the mind by mental power. Freud finds that there are other criteria that can be used to distinguish the content of the psyche.
They create an opportunity for more homogeneous and practical classifications. So Freud creates a new hypothesis. The structural hypothesis groups psychic processes and mental content according to functional criteria and looks for their functional differences. Each individual mental structure is a group of interrelated processes and contents of the psyche. Freud distinguishes three functional groups, which he calls Id, Ego, and Superego.
The idiom consists of the mental representatives of the instincts, the Ego of those functions that connect the individual with the environment, and the Superego of the moral prescriptions and ideals we strive for. Daggers exist from birth.
The ego and the superego begin to develop after birth. The functions of the Ego in a mature man include a large number of events in the adult, such as the pursuit of pleasure, habits, compliance with the requirements of society, intellectual, aesthetic and artistic interests.
The child’s primary interest in the environment is based on the fact that it is a poetic pleasure provider. These constituent parts of the psyche, which are directed to the study of the external environment, gradually turn into what we call Ego. The ego directs itself to the world in order to ensure that Id is satisfied.
Control of motor, perception, emotion and thinking is complicated in the process of mental development. This is characteristic of all the functions of the Ego. The factors responsible for their progressive deployment can be divided into two groups:
- Rising of the nervous system.
- The accumulated life experience.
The accumulated experience is related to the identification with objects and with people from the environment. The identification is a process in which the individual begins to resemble another person and accept its qualities. Identification is an important aspect of relationships with objects especially in early childhood.
Psychoanalysis uses the terms primary and secondary processes. The primary process may refer to a certain kind of thinking characteristic of a small child with an immature Ego. The secondary process is characteristic of the mature Ego. The most characteristic of cathexicity in the primary process is that it is too mobile. This motif of the cathecyse defines two main features of the primary process:
- Tendency to immediate unloading of the cathecy.
- The ease with which the cathexis can be conveyed to other landing routes, even if the initial sites of satisfaction become inaccessible.
The first characteristic dominates in the early childhood when the Ego is still immature. Research shows that the trend of immediate unloading of cathecyse is typical of ID for the rest of life.
The second feature is the easy substitution of one way of unloading the cathecy into another. An example is the baby that sucks his finger when the mother’s breast or baby is absent.
Basic theoretical hypotheses. Psychological determinism and unconscious mental processes. The method of free associations.
As in any scientific discipline, and in psychoanalysis, the various hypotheses are interrelated. Some of them are basic others, and some of them are central and are considered to be basic psychic laws.
Two of these basic and repeatedly confirmed hypotheses are the hypothesis of mental determinism (or the causation of psychic phenomena), and the hypothesis that conscious mental activity is an exception rather than a rule in psychological processes. According to Freud, unconscious psychic processes are predominant and are of paramount importance both for the normal functioning of the psyche and its deviations.
Psychic determinism means that in our psyche nothing happens accidentally and without a connection. Every mental process precedes or is caused by another. Mental phenomena just look just look casual and independent. There is nothing in the mental process that is not related to the other phenomena.
The two hypotheses are so connected with each other that it is almost impossible to consider them separately. This is due to the fact that most of our mental activity is unconscious, ie. uninvited for us, which is the reason for the seeming apparent lack of connection between individual experiences.
If any thought, feeling, or illness symptom at first glance is unrelated to previous mental activities, it seems so because they are related to unconscious mental processes. If we find the causes then the apparent disconnect disappears, ie. the causal relationship becomes clear.
There is still no means of observing the immediate unconscious mental processes. All methods explore these phenomena in a roundabout way. Tennes allow us to assume that such phenomena exist and to establish their nature and importance for the psychic life of the person who is the subject of our research.
So far, the most useful and sure way to study unconscious psychic processes is the technique developed by Sigmund Freud. Throughout the years in which he developed the technique of psychoanalysis, Freud succeeds with his help in discovering the importance of unconscious mental processes for man both in a state of health and in a state of illness.
Freud introduces the method of “free associations” by requiring the patient to refrain from the willful control of his thoughts, because when he reports he is stimulated by unconscious thoughts and motives. By doing this, listening to the free associations of their patients. associations freed from control of consciousness. Freud manages to understand what is going on unconsciously in their psyche.
During the study of unconscious mental processes, Freud concludes that they can be divided into two groups. The first contains thoughts, memories and others that can easily reach the consciousness. These mental elements are called conscious. The other group of phenomena includes those psychic elements that can be realized only after considerable effort. They are kept out of consciousness by a kind of force that must be overcome before they are realized. This is also the case with the amnesia.
This group of phenomena Freud defines as unconscious in the narrow sense of the word. They have the greatest influence on mental activity. In addition, unconscious processes can be compared with precision and accuracy with the conscious.
Dangle. Instinct and Driving. Eros and Tanatos. Edopov complex and the dangers.
What we call prononus in psychological literature is usually referred to as instinct. Instinct is a more appropriate term of persecution, because with it we enliven in man that system of mental life, which corresponds to what is meant as an instinct. The difference is that instinct is innate readiness to react in a uniform and serious way to a certain group of irritants.
It is composed of behavioral reactions much more complex than the usual reflex. But, like the unconditional reflex, the instinct for central nervous system animals consists of the following: irritation, CNS agitation, and motor reaction following a particular pathway. The human drive does not include the motor response and consists only of CNS excitation triggered by an irritant.
In contrast to the predisposition to instincts in animals, the motor activity in the person of excitement is accomplished by highly developed psyche of the psyche. They are called the Ego and enable the stimulus-induced reaction to change according to the experience of thinking.
The nagon is a genetically determined component of the psyche whose action creates mental excitement. This excitement prompts the individual to act, which is generally programmed genetically, but can vary considerably depending on the individual.
The action causes the excitement and tension to subsided to satisfaction. The reaction to the tension is deployed in a certain sequence. It looks like this: voltage, motor action and damping. In the latest version of his theory, Freud assumes that there are two main dangers – sexual and aggressive.
As denominations suggest, this dualism is in general an expression of what we call sex and aggression in everyday life. Generally one can say that one impulse generates the erotic component of mental activity and the other the destructive one. Based on this division, it is assumed that there are two types of mental energy – one related to the sexual one and the other to the aggressive drive. The first one has a special name – libido.
The second has no name, but there is a suggestion that it is called a dextrode . The divorce of sexual and aggressive perceptions according to this theory is based on psychological considerations. In his original theory, Freud tries to link the psychological notions of instincts with some basic concepts of biology and proposes them to be called a drive to life and a drive to death.
By the end of the third year, a leading sexual role begins to take on the genitals and is normally continued by them and then. This phase is called phallic for two reasons. Firstly, because the interest of the child of both sexes is directed to the penis. It is assumed that the clitoris, which is embryoally analogous to a penis in women, is the organ of the sexual satisfaction of the little girl. In some cases, this tendency may persist for the rest of life, although it is normal for the clinician to give up this role in the vagina.
And so the three phases of psychosexual development are: oral, anal and phallic, the latter being infused into the puberty and steadily embedded in mature sexuality. The phase of the sexually mature person is called “genital”. The difference between phallic and genital phases is a matter of no content, as the ability to orgasm is only reached during puberty.
The phases of the child’s sexual development influence the mental life and determine the strength of his or her interests, the importance of the individual sexual objects, and the forms of satisfaction of the sexual drive during the different periods.
Libido , which catalogs the objects and forms of satisfaction from the earlier phase, gradually withdraws from them and transcribes them into objects from the next phase. The libido cathex is very strong and can not be overcome. Although most of the libido can move to new sites, a small part of it remains connected with the original object. Retaining cathecyse in early childhood sites is called libido fixation. Fixing is most often an expression of psychopathology . It is most often completely unconscious, and sometimes partially unconscious.
In the course of psychosocial development, reverse development or return of libido cathexis can be observed to previous stages of development.
This return of the libido is called “regression,” ie. return to previous objects and ways of satisfying.
The regression is closely related to fixation, since regression is directed primarily towards objects and modes of satisfaction to which the individual is still fixed. In most cases, regression occurs in unfavorable external circumstances. It may be a normal phenomenon, and others may be a pathological scar.
Freud accepts the aggressive drive much later when the sexual drive is already recognized and has been the subject of special research. The advent of the aggressive drive also shows fixation and regression and passes through the oral, anal and phalic phases. This means that the infant’s aggressive infestations can be unloaded with oral activity, such as biting.
In the later phases, the filling of pants or stool retention has a leading role in expressing aggression, and in even older children the penis and its functions are experienced as a means of destruction. There is a dispute as to whether the unloading of the aggressive drive is a pleasure. Freud assumes he does not wear. Other authors have the opposite view.
Relationships of the Self with the Outward World. Narcissism, Oedipus Complex and Superego. Formation and functions of the Ego. Protective mechanisms.
One of the functions of the Ego is to control the external environment. The ability to sensory perception is: for remembrance, comparison, and thinking. The third function is motor control. Along with these diverse and interconnected functions, there is another function – the ability to take into account reality, the ability to count on reality, the ability of the Ego to distinguish the stimuli and sensations that originate from the outside world from those that arise from the impulses of Id.
The ability of the Ego to control the discharging of Ida’s energy is necessary for the full use of the external environment. When you wait a person is able to avoid some unpleasant consequences of immediate satisfaction and thus to enhance the pleasure delivered. The disapproval of the elders forces the ego to begin to oppose Id, and ultimately the Ego becomes the master of Id’s impulses.
The main reason for the development of the Ego is the non-destruction of the energies that contribute to the reduction of the idiot’s libidious and aggressive energy and to the increase of the energy of the Ego. Another form of limiting the utterances of Id is the process of satisfaction through fantasy.
The main characteristic of fantasy is that it realizes the wishes of Ida, thus satisfying the corresponding impulses and partially unloading their energy. One of the most crucial characteristics of the whole process, which enables the Ego to oppose Ida, is the propensity of people to react with fear of circumstantial circumstances.
Freud connects anxiety with, say, “Traumatic situation” and “threat situation”. She did not accept the traumatic situation, the psyche is overwhelmed by irritants that are so numerous that she is unable to manage them or to unload them. Freud assumes that any such phenomenon manifests anxiety. The threat situation can be explained by the example of an infant whose mother is missing. As a result, the ego perceives separation with the mother as a “threat situation”.
When he judges that the impulses coming from the Ida can cause a threat, the Ego opposes them. The ego incites anxiety that serves as a signal of danger and thus attracts the principle of pleasure on its part in order to repel the emergence of dangerous impulses.
This opposition is called the defense reaction of the Ego. For this purpose, the ego uses all that is at its disposal – fantasy, perception, etc. There are also specific protective reactions called defense mechanisms. And they are :
- Sweating – This activity of the Ego through which it removes from the consciousness the unwanted impulses of Id with its derivatives as memories, emotions, comps, and fantasies. This Ego activity, which removes the unwanted impulses of Id together with their derivatives as memories, emotions, longings and fantasies from consciousness. Ejection constantly creates a lasting, even permanent, tension between Ego and Id. The elapsed material holds in it a catastrophic energy that continues to strive for spreading, and the Ego invests much of its energy in order to maintain its suppression. This energy of the Ego is called contracatox.
- Formation of reaction – A pair of ambivalent feelings, for example, hatred becomes constantly unconscious and intensifies in consciousness. Forming a reaction is a unconscious process and permanently changes the Ego.
- Isolation of the affection or ejection of the emotion – the desire-related fantasy has a corresponding memory of the past and keeps its access to consciousness until the emotion is separated from it and can not reach the consciousness.
- Cancellation refers to actions aimed at overturning the imaginary evil that one imagines has caused as a result of his desires.
- Denial – Unpleasant effects of external reality are denied through fantasy or action. It refers to blocking certain impressions from the outside world, or they are given too much attention.
- Projection – Attributing the own to our own desires and impulses to people and objects that are not desirable for us.
- Targeting itself – directing the instinctive impulse to yourself as injuring oneself and often accompanying with unconscious indifference to the subject to which the impulse is directed.
- Regress-return, in whole or in part, in earlier stages of development. All protective mechanisms can be detected both in normal mental development and in disease states.
Close to these mechanisms, but to a certain extent the sublimation mechanism is different. It is a type of substitution action that follows the demands of the external environment and is capable of delivering largely unconscious satisfaction to the instincts that are impossible to satisfy in their true form, the initial impulse has been modified in such a way that it is accepted and approved by the public.
Libido can move in the body and fix it in certain parts of it. Targeting libido to self is defined as narcissism. When this term refers to older people means three things:
- Hyper-cathexis in the Self
- Hypo cathexis in objects from the middle
- Abnormal and immature attitudes towards objects.
When narcissism refers to children, it means a normal stage of development. According to Freud, most of the libido remains narcissistic until the end of life until the end of life. Children’s libido is related to so-called Oedipus complex . This is the period between two and a half to six years. Relationships with the objects that make up the Oedipus complex are of utmost importance both for normal development and deviations.
This is a dual attitude towards the two parents: on the one hand, there is the elimination of the jealous father who is jealous and takes his place in the sexual relationship with the mother. On the other hand, there is the girl’s desire to remove the mother and take the place to the father. The revenge that the boy is afraid of as a result of his eagerness to the mother is that he will lose his penis. This fear is called a fear of castration.
Realizing the fact that she is not armed in the same way as the little girl’s boys, there are strong feelings of envy, shame, inferiority. Although the Oedipal fantasies continue to exist in consciousness as babble from childhood and influence the mental life of the elderly. The Oedipus complex is important for building the Superego. It corresponds to what we call consciousness. It includes the moral stand of the personality. Its functions are:
- Approving and disapproval of actions and desires based on the notions of justice.
- Self-observation and self-criticism.
- Improving behavior or remorse for bad actions.
- Praise and love for yourself as a reward for virtuous deeds and thoughts. The superego is closely related to the Oedipus complex and is the result of the indices with the moral and limiting aspects of the parents. From the beginning, the Superego is made up of the internalized abortions of the parents as they experience during the Oedipal Phase. The superego does not make a difference between desire and action and threatens to punish both. Another characteristic feature of the Superego is his ability to create an unconscious need for self-punishment.
Psychology of dreams
The psychoanalytic theory of dreams can be formulated as follows. The subjective experience that occurs in consciousness while sleeping, what is called sleep is the ultimate product of unconscious mental activity. Due to the nature of its intensity it threatens to disturb the peace of sleep.
Rather than waking the sleeping man, he begins to dream. The conscious experience while a person sleeps whether he remembers it or is not called an obvious sleeping content.
Unconscious thoughts and desires that threaten to awaken the sleeping man are called dormant sleeping contents. The unconscious mental activity of turning the latent content into a clear dream is called a mechanism of dreaming.
Latent content can be divided into three main categories. The first category consists of sensory perceptions during sleep. When they are constantly intruding on the sleeping organs of the sleeping person, such perceptions may occasionally take part in the rise of sleep. Most impulses from the sensory organs have no noticeable effect on the psyche during sleep. This refers to those sensations that are waking up to be strong.
The second is that disturbing stimuli can awaken the sleeping person without causing sleep. The second category of latent sleep content may be composed of thoughts that predominate in the waking mind of the person and remain active unconscious during sleep. Because of this activity they have the ability to awaken the sleeping person in the same way as external stimuli.
If instead of waking up a person dreaming these thoughts and ideas become part of the dormant dream.
The third category consists of one or several impulses from the Ida, which are devoid of access to consciousness due to the protective actions of the Ego and can not be satisfied directly in the waking state. This is the part of Id that Freud calls a sigh. This latent content consists of impulses generated by the weakened part of the Ida from the early childhood.
The third category differs sharply from the other two, which consist of current sensations and problems. The latent content of dreams has two sources – present and past. Typical of all dreams is that latent content is unconscious until it is obvious.
Obvious content is a visual image, while latent is something like desire or impulse. Obvious content is a fancy depicting the satisfaction of latent content. Very often the obvious content of the dreams in the elderly is a camouflaged and distorted version of the fantasy. Makes the desire that is experienced as a visual image.
Blurring and distortion are so pronounced that it is almost impossible to establish the realization of desire in apparent sleep. Expensive sleep is sometimes a mix of unrelated fragments that seem meaningless.
Sometimes the obvious dream becomes terrible and undesirable, and at least does not contain the pleasant feelings that are supposed to accompany the realization of desires and fantasies. This distortion is due to the mechanism of dreaming.
This mechanism identifies two main and one additional factors. The first major factor is the translation of the language of the primary thought process into the latent content of all or parts of it that are still translated. This action is followed by the compression of all the elements of the latent content into a desire-making fantasy.
Another major factor in the ego defense operations, which exert a strong influence on the process of translating and forming fantasy. The third or additional factor Freud calls a secondary revision.
Anxiety is the main feature of obvious content. It occurs in the nightmares that reveal a failure of the Ego defense operations. Some element of latent content manages to penetrate the consciousness despite the protection of the Ego and appears in the apparent content of sleep unreadable or recognizable by the Ego too easily. As a result, the Ego reacts with anxiety.
Another type of dreams are so. criminal dreams. In them the ego provides guilt, reproach from the Superego in the event that part of the latent content occurs directly in the apparent sleep. The protections of the Ego oppose this part of the latent content.
As a result, apparent sleep, rather than expressing the masked fantasy to accomplish the eagerness of desire, expresses a masked fantasy for the realization of the desirable desire, expresses a masked fantasy for hatred of desire.
According to modern psychoanalytic psychiatric theory, the fact that the dream dream is a hallucination is explained in the following way: During sleep, much of the Ego’s function decreases the volition of motor activity and is almost completely paralyzed during sleep. The ability of the Ego to take account of reality is also diminished.
During sleep, the functions of the Ego regress deeply to the level of early stages of life. Thinking is represented by the primary process. It is predominantly nonverbal, which means it consists of sensory images, mostly visual. Losing the ability to count on reality is probably a consequence of regression.
Psychological conflict and psycho-neurological symptoms.
Protective psychoneurosis. The meaning of the neurotic symptom.
Freud creates his definition of psychopathology and psychoneurosis based on his experience of the study of forgotten memories where psychopathological events relate to childhood and to the sexual experiences of patients. He puts forward the hypothesis that these diseases result from mental disabilities resulting from childhood experiences by an adult or a younger child.
Based on this experience, assuming that if the patient was actively involved in a traumatic sexual experience, the subsequent symptoms would be intriguing. If his role in the traumatic experience was passive, the symptoms would be hysterical. Freud does not give up his ideas that the psycho-neurosis is at the heart of child sex life, and that conception is still the core of psychoanalytic theory of these conditions.
Soon Freud is convinced that in many cases, patients’ stories of sexual seduction are actually fantasies, not actual symptoms, despite their conviction that they are real experiences. Freud makes a huge step forward by realizing that sexual interests and activities are a normal part of human life and are limited to traumatic events. So he formulates his theory of childhood sexuality.
As a result of this discovery, the attribution of purely random traumatic experiences reduces the attribution of the importance of heredity. Freud manages to prove that psycho-neurological symptoms have a meaning similar to the elements of apparent sleep. Symptoms are masked and distorted expressions of unconscious sexual fantasies.
This conception is expressed in the formulation that the sexual life of psychoneurotic is manifested entirely or partially through its symptoms. Hysteria and protective psychoneurosis have a disorder in the relationship between and Ida in early childhood. This conflict is resolved by the Ego, which manages to implement a bold and effective way of controlling dangerous events.
This is a complex operation, which usually consists of applying protections on the one hand, and on the other by changes in the Ego through the path of indulgence, sublimation or regression.
Regardless of the merits of the control mode used, it always works for a limited time: there is always a moment when an event or experience disturbs the equilibrium, and the Ego apparatus becomes unable to effectively control the instincts.
These unlockable factors can act by enhancing the drive or weakening the Ego. The Dangers are threatening to invade consciousness and become actions despite the ego’s attempts to deter them.
This creates a conflict between the Ego and the Id, where the Ego is in a weaker position. As a result, a compromise is reached. a psychoneurotic symptom. It is a failure in the protection of the Ego.
Looking at the Ida’s position, the psychoneurotic symptom is in fact a substitute for satisfying ejected desires. Secondary benefit is a special case of the Ego’s attempts to exploit the opportunities created to deliver pleasure and satisfaction. From Freud’s point of view, it may be too important from a treatment point of view.
Sometimes the patient unconsciously prefers neurosis because its symptoms are of particular benefit to him.
The regression is the many protective mechanisms that can be used by the Ego. The deeper the regression, the more severe the symptoms.
Contemporary state of psychoanalysis
From the beginning, when he examines the importance of psychoanalysis for the world of ideas, Freud compares the discovery of psychoanalysis with the discoveries of Copernicus and Darwin’s work. Psychoanalysis shows us that we are not masters of our own psyche. We obey and manage unconscious mental processes, the desired fears, conflicts, and fantasies that we do not even suspect.
Today, psychoanalysis is no longer new. The new in it gradually disappears, as is the case with the theory of evolution and the solar system. The knowledge of psychoanalysis leads to the expansion of the horizons in the same way as do the basic theories of physics and biology. These theories open a window to the world around us.
The findings of psychoanalysis enable us to get a complete picture of the psychic and behavior of people, of man as a person. From Freud we learn that every thought and action is conditioned by a more complicated way. Now we know that the actions and thoughts are formed on the one hand by the forces of Id, on the other hand, by the protections of the Ego, by the third of the moral requirements of the Superego, and by the fourth by the external circumstances that allow us to satisfy or not to drive.
What new opportunities the future will bring to the study of the psyche is not very clear. Currently, the best means is the psychoanalytic method. The data he has received without question leaves doubt on many issues. By applying this method, much more light is cast in the field of human psychology .
Recently, psychoanalysis is increasingly seen as an important method of treatment and its exposure is increasing. Its significance extends beyond the field of mental illness. Psychoanalysis can provide information about many aspects of normal mental life. The main interest is still focused on clinical practice and psychoanalytic training.
Another area that engages the efforts of a small group of psychoanalysts is child development. Psychoanalysts watching children’s psychic life make a significant contribution to the development of the psyche in the early years of life.
Psychoanalysis is, among other things, the study of human biography. She looks for the main events in her life, their relationships, the factors that cause them, and their psychological consequences. Her main interest is a way to this side of life that man hides not only from other people but also from oneself.
Significance of psychological conflict to form normal personality qualities
In the area of character, psychoanalysis is interested in the relation between the characteristics of the character and the instincts of the young child. Freud points out the link between the interludes of anal eroticism in childhood and the manifestations of pedanticity, justice and inertia at a later age, and an analogous link between child phallic desires and ambivalence of the adult. Most psychoanalysts agree with Freud.
Character classification is based on observation of the specifics and phases of libido development. These are anal, oral and phallic characters or traits of character. Clinical practice confirms Freud’s observations that characteristic features stem from anal wishes and conflicts in childhood.
This classification is based on instincts and more precisely on libido. It imposes predominantly on the influence of instincts on mental life. Later on, knowledge of the complex pathway that a person goes from the conflicts that he desires from their childhood and their encounters to the behavior of the elderly is accumulated.
Not all Oedipus-time indices are related to the formation of the Superego. Some of them are a distorted expression of child sexual desires and competition. It is normal for the little boy to have a conscious desire to be like his father. The same can be observed with mother and daughter.
What is taken into account as a physical resemblance between parents and children is sometimes only a behavioral resemblance. The reason for this is not the inheritance of physical qualities. The similarity is due to acquired psychic features as a result of unconscious instances during childhood. They are often an expression of the child’s desire to be the parent with whom to identify in this way.